Within the file that makes up a digital photo, there's a lot more data than just the pixels that make up the picture. Most cameras also store lots of extra information in there, such as the image settings, camera settings (focal length, zoom, exposure time, aperture etc), and more. If the camera has access to a GPS feed, perhaps from the smartphone to which it's built in, the co-ordinates of the location are often stored too.
If you want to view this metadata, an excellent Windows app with which to do it is called PhotoGrok. It's free, and you can download it at http://www.haplessgenius.com/photogrok/.
The program is written using Java, so you'll also need to make sure that you have a recent version of Java installed on your computer. If not, first head to www.java.com and get it.
Once you've downloaded and launched PhotoGrok, start by clicking the Folder Manager button on the main screen and tell it where your photos are stored. Then, on the File menu, choose Build Tree. That's all there is to it. You can now browse your images by file type, and view the metadata within them.